A February 2022 article in the World Journal of Oncology claiming "nicotine vapers face the same cancer risk as smokers" was retracted after publication due to concerns with its methodology, source data processing, and conclusions. The article failed to address if diagnoses were made before or after vaping, a minimum requirement for inferring causation. The article, with 13 authors from various institutions, had other problems such as writing errors, non sequiturs, and inconsistencies.
Critics have noted the peer review process for vaping studies is biased, favoring articles with weak science that highlight vaping hazards. Brad Rodu, a tobacco harm reduction researcher, questions how the "grossly flawed" study got through peer review. The study's regression analysis concluded that e-cigarette users had 2.2 times higher risk of having cancer compared to non-smokers, while smokers had 1.96 times higher risk, however the study didn't take into account the respondents' history of smoking.
This is the first major study against vaping to be retracted, and opens the door for more a more critical stance to be taken against the true level of risk vaping poses. With these studies often having significant influences over laws and vaping bans, more accurate research and review of vaping risks can help preserve the market, and prevent unjust restrictions placed on the vaping industry.